Prescribing Information

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Medication Guide

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A-G | H-M | N-S | T-Z


Adrenal Gland

The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands located on the top of each kidney, and they produce many of the hormones the body needs to function properly.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

A procedure in which blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) are removed, stored, and later given back to the same person.

Autoimmune Disease

An illness that causes the immune system to produce antibodies that attack normal body tissues.



A gene that produces a protein called BRAF that sends messages to influence cells and cell growth. In many cancers, this gene is mutated (or changed), which changes the BRAF protein and in turn can promote the growth and spread of cancer cells.

BRAF Negative

If your tumor has a normal BRAF gene. Also referred to as wild type.

BRAF Positive

If your tumor has an abnormal BRAF due to a gene mutation called V600E.



A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.


Treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

Clinical Trial

A type of research study that tests how well new medical approaches work in people. These studies test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. Also called a clinical study.

Complete Response

The disappearance of any detectable evidence of cancer, such as tumors, in response to treatment. This does not necessarily mean the cancer has been cured. Also called complete remission.


A corticosteroid is a medicine that is similar to hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They are used to reduce inflammation and affect the immune system.

Crohn’s Disease

Crohn’s is part of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. It causes inflammation (swelling) of the digestive system. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen and diarrhea.



An abbreviation for deficient mismatch repair. Cells in your body have a mismatch repair (MMR) system, which can fix inconsistencies in their DNA when DNA is being copied within the cell. dMMR means that this system is deficient or not functioning properly. This can result in tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI-H).

Duration of Response

The measure of how long a response to treatment lasts.


Head and Neck Cancer

Many different types of cancer can occur in the head and neck. The most common is squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Most SCCHN begins in the layer of cells that line the moist surfaces inside the head and neck, for example, the mouth—including the tongue, lips, and cheeks—throat, sinuses, and voice box.

Hormone Replacement

The use of hormones as a therapy to ease the effects of hormone deficiency.


Immune System

The complex system of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make that helps the body fight infections and other diseases.


A type of therapy that uses substances to stimulate or suppress the immune system to help the body fight cancer, infection, and other diseases.


The introduction of a solution, such as certain medicines, into a vein.

Intravenous (IV)

IV is an abbreviation for intravenous, which means “within a vein.” Intravenous medications or fluids are administered through a needle or tube directly into the vein.



Lupus is an autoimmune disease, which means that your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain.



A form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or in the intestines.


Having to do with metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from the primary site (place where it started) to other places in the body.


An abbreviation for microsatellite instability-high. Microsatellites are sections of DNA arranged in a certain order within a cell. The order can change when cells make mistakes repairing themselves. A cell is considered MSI-H when many sections are out of order.


Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer.



A doctor who specializes in the treatment of cancer and manages a person’s care once they are diagnosed with cancer.

Overall Response Rate (ORR)

Also known as the objective response rate. The percentage of patients who had a positive response to treatment and saw their tumors either shrink (called a partial response) or present no detectable evidence (called a complete response).



The pancreas is an organ behind the stomach that makes and releases enzymes into the intestines to help with digestion and makes and releases hormones that help control blood sugar levels.

Partial Response

The decrease in the size of a tumor or the amount of cancer in the body in response to treatment. Also called partial remission.

PD-1 Inhibitor

PD-1 is an acronym for programmed death receptor-1. PD-1 is a checkpoint protein on immune cells called T cells. It normally acts as a type of “off switch” that helps keep the T cells from attacking other cells in the body. It does this when it attaches to PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), a protein on some normal (and cancer) cells. When PD-1 binds to PD-L1, it basically tells the T cell to leave the other cell alone. Some cancer cells have large amounts of PD-L1, which helps them evade immune attack.

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary is a small gland that is located on the base of the brain, and it is responsible for regulating the body’s balance of many hormones.



Energy released in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves. Radiation can damage cells and is used to diagnose and treat certain cancers.

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)

RCC is a type of kidney cancer. About 9 out of 10 kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas. Although RCC usually grows as a single tumor within a kidney, sometimes there are 2 or more tumors in 1 kidney or tumors in both kidneys at the same time.


Side Effects

Also called drug reactions, side effects are unwanted effects or reactions caused by drugs.


T Cell

A type of white blood cell in the immune system that protects the body from infection and may help the body fight cancer.

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland that makes the hormones that help the body use energy, stay warm, and keep all the body’s organs working as they should.


An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Also called a neoplasm.


Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

UC is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease.